Horse And Jockey Hotel Oaks Preview

Horse & Jockey Hotel Oaks

Outright Betting

Meet the contenders for the Greyhound & Pet World Oaks.

Click here to read Damien’s prices and tips for the BoyleSports Irish Coursing Derby 2016.

And click here to read Damien’s prices and tips for the 2016 Champion Stakes.

Oilean Diligent 33/1 – Liscannor (Kyle Calvin – Diligent) April
First winner for Kyle Calvin, improved her clock in each round of the stake. Could well appear out again this season. Dam Diligent closely related to March Is On (Champion Stakes winner) so bred to climb the hill in Clonmel. In capable hands

Not Really 25/1 out to 16/1 – Kilflynn (Kingsmill Dynamo-Wilton Millie) Jan
Winner of a competitive trial stake at the start of the season, comes from the Tango Time line. Shimmerandshine has since come out and won in Rathkeale from this stake. Was clocking on par with very good all age dogs on the second day. One to keep note of.

Beat in the second round of All Age in Killimer Kilrush in her next public appearance.

Graceandglamour 12/1 into 8/1 – Glin (Razor Ashmore-Quality And Dash) April
Born to run in Powerstown Park. This lady kept up John Flynns amazing record at the meeting. Was fancied from the start, never really looked in trouble, looked to have improved no end in Rathkeale in the all age bitch stake. Was running on strong in the second half of the course.

Manley Girl 12/1 into 10/1 – Ennis-Clarecastle (Wallace Green-Class Attraction) Jan
First talking bitch of the season, word is she stood out a country mile in round one here and continued the trend throughout. Runner up has since come out and won in Galway & Oranmore. Big money was talked about with this lady but she remains in the capable hands of Con Guiney. Looks a real speed merchant, we will be keeping her onside. A loser in the book.

Free And Easy 25/1 out to 33/1 – Regional (Kingsmill Dynamo-Blades Of Glory) Feb
I was there the day she won here, what she done in the final was nothing short of amazing. She looked in a spot of bother after getting a few turns in the semi-final but she picked herself up and ran out a comfortable winner. Another fantastically bred lady from the kennel of John Flynn.

Was beat by Kilkeale Queen in the first round of the all age in Rathkeale and Smokey Zara in the first round of the Puppy stake in Mooncoin since.

Killucan Rose 25/1 – Westmeath Utd (Johnny Casanova-Your Symbolic) May
First qualifier from this fantastic litter. This looked a nice trial stake on paper, the two ladies who showed best in the opening rounds made the final. Killucan Rose won a local battle against Dale Sansa in the final. Dale has since won impressively in Trim, form is solid.

Showed up very well against the opposite sex in Kilcullen, getting to the final and was far from disgraced when going down to Derby fav Blueview Rio

Ballyverry Razor 25/1 – Fermoy (Razor Ashmore-Quality And Dash) April
Another well-bred lady, winner first time out. Owner/trainer have a brilliant strike rate. Super lady on her game, great early and ran on strong. Can see her going off shorter for the Oaks nearer the time. Breed tend to improve.

Two outing since her trial stake win, won a round in Glanworth and was beat in first round of Corn Na Feile by Vim And Vigour.

Oakview Banba 16/1 out to 20/1 – Loughrea (Johnny Casanova-Oh Banba) April
Debut winner, was favourite after one round here and held her clock each round. Form for trial stake is ok, runner up has since ran up in Killimer Kilrush. Early pace looks to be her strong point.

Very disappointing in her reappearance in Roscommon, beat by Laytown Girl in round 1.

Melting Pot 20/1 – Abbeydorney (Kingsmill Dynamo-Intense Focus) March
Trained by MJOD for Sir Mark Prescott, there has been two qualifiers from this litter so far. Beat Shimmerandshine in round two here. Intense Focas is a daughter of Mountain Guest (oaks winner) so the hill won’t be a problem for this lady. One for the shortlist.

Ran out of her skin in Abbeyfeale, reaching the final and beat some well fancied runners along the way. Can’t see the 20/1 lasting too much longer!

Juicemelucy 33/1 – Crohane & Killenaule (Wallace Green-Intervention) March
Another first time out winner for Wallace Green, was showing in front each time from slips. The field in Crohane is as tough as they come so it takes a bit of stamina to win here.

Brianna Mark 40/1 – Edenderry (Killimor Matey-Brianna) March
Beaten first time out in Westmeath Utd before claiming her win here. Second qualifier from this very game litter. Had it all to do in the final in this competitive trial stake, clocking a bit off all age runners however.

Isnt She Lovely 16/1 – Miltown-Malbay (Adios Alonso-Funny Honey) March
Word was out about this one prior to the trial stake. Impressive winner throughout and very well bred. Beat Skellig Jewel (who should pick up her ticket soon) in the decider. Electric from the leathers and stood out at the meeting. Winner first time of asking.

Appeared out again in Abbeyfeale where she reached the 2nd round. Beat City Cruise in 1st course and lost out to Vim And Vigour in her 2nd course (clock was very good).

Accessibility 25/1 – Ballingar (Adios Alonso-Aslee Annie) May
Winner second time out, beat in round two in Edenderry first time out. Came on a tonne from the outing and stood out like a sore thumb in round one in Ballinagar. Opened up gaps early in each of her courses, bred for speed and stamina.

She next appeared in Kilcullen going down in the first round to eventual runner-up Killucan Rose.

Cooneen Kylie 40/1 – Charleville (Kyle James-Marshals Duchess) April
Choicely bred runner. Winner second time out, crept under the radar for the first few rounds but really came to herself in the final and semi-final. Keep galloping all day! Further improvement is required, noting to say she won’t!

Had a blow out in the bitch stake in Newcastlewest, lost out to Pauna Pronto in first round.

Astana Rubie 33/1 – Waterford (Central City-Beautys Grace) June
First winner of the of the year for David Flanagan. Tough as old boots, kept improving with each run. Only a June puppy so natural improvement should be there. Might see her out again before February.

Did come out again in Kilcullen, was beat by big improver Donovanneighbour in first round.

Laughing Lilo 33/1 – Castleisland (Mafi Magic-Laughing Lady) May
The trial stake here in Castleisland in recent years has worked out very well. Calma Chicha looked the one early in this stake but Laughing Lilo kept plugging away at the bottom of the draw. Looks great value for the Oaks at the moment, first oaks qualifier for Mafi Magic

Carozza 33/1 – Limerick City (Kingsmill Dynamo-Rock Music) Jan
First time out winner, didn’t show any inexperience. Clocked not too far off the all age dogs here, a lot was to be liked about her win. Plenty of speed on both sides of the family, any further improvement could see her run very well in Clonmel

Dale Sansa 25/1 – Trim (Adios Alonso-Boomtown Hazel) May
Runner up in her local meeting in Westmeath Utd before sealing the deal in Trim. Was a few lengths behind Derby trial stake winner (Blueview Rio) but then again he is Derby favourite. Dale looked the one here when she was dropped for her first course, trained by Brendan Farrelly her victory was never in doubt.

Had a nice run in the bitch stake in Castletowngeoghegan, clocked up very well in the first round. Connections must have liked what they saw so they took her out of the second round.

Laurdella Dani 10/1 – New Ross (Adios Alonso-Jamaica Jane) May
Was trained by Deco Kells for her win here. Described as a bullet from slips by some of the spectators at the meeting. She has everything from pace, breeding to looks. Changed hands straight away after her win, she is now under the care of Gerry Holian. Put in originally at 14/1 for the Oaks, she is now stand out fav at 10’s. New connections are happy with their intake

Vim And Vigour 25/1 now into 16/1 – Galway & Oranmore (Razor Ashmore-Quality And Dash) April
Follows her sister Ballyverry Razor into the Oaks and one of four for trainer John Flynn. This was her second outing of the season, first time out she was beat in the final by Manley Girl. She beat a decent lady in the semi-final here in Galway (Moat Matilda since ran very well in Knockgraffon). Her litter sister improved big time so no reason she can’t either.

Went joint fav for the Corn Na Feile after recording a few flying clocks. Was surprisingly beat in the semi-final by Melting Pot.

Smokey Zara 25/1 – Nenagh (Kingsmill Dynamo-Smokey Symbol) April
I thought Zara ran very well in round one in Fermoy only to be beat in second round. Made no mistake next time in Nenagh! Always in command throughout the stake. Trained by the legendary Thomas A O’Dywer, there won’t be a fitter bitch going in the Oaks.

Won a round in the puppy stake in Mooncoin (beat Free And Easy) and was taken out of the semi-final.

Glenlough Dixie 20/1 – Listowel (Newinn Wonder-Dixie Darlin) May
Form for this trial stake is rock solid, Shimmerandshine has come out since and won in Rathkeale. I expect another winner or two to emerge! A hard bitch to pass once getting away in front so could be hard to get the better of. The first Newinn Wonder to win a trial stake.

North Kilkenny was next on the agenda for Dixie, she ran out of her skin here. Beat some nice opposition on her way to the final before losing out to Balleen Gadget. Looked to have improved.

Hey Ma 33/1 – Co Carlow (Razor Ashmore-Miss Candy Floss) March
Winner second time of asking, beaten in third round in Crohane on her debut outing. Really thrived over the extended trip in Carlow which suggests she will love Clonmel. Exceptionally well bred on both sides. Looks value currently at the price.

Sullane Erin 16/1 – Ballyduff (Newinn Wonder-Bower Sign) April
Erin set tongues wagging in Glin before being withdrawn. We didn’t have to wait long to see her reappear! She made no mistake in Ballyduff showing all round pace. Word after the first day was this lady was Oaks material. She didn’t leave her supporters down.

Form boosted here after runner up Banba Be Lucky ran away with the trial stake in Abbeyfeale.

Amelies Milly 33/1 – Clonmel & Kil (Central City-Beautys Grace) June
Millie was very unlucky not to get the flag in the semi-final in Fermoy. She seemed a bit green on debut. Returned mature and ready for action in Kilsheelen, held her clock throughout and easily beat red hot favourite Minella Babe in the final. Second qualifier from this litter and is maturing all the time

Heart Strings 40/1 into 20/1 – Cavan (Thomas The Tank-Hidden Passion) Feb
Winner at the third attempt. First oaks qualifier for Thomas The Tank. Clocked fastest in the first round, and kept galloping on. Dams first litter, no win herself but she is out of the great Call Up. Must improve.

Massive improver for Michael Heeney. Won the bitch stake in Castletowngeoghan beating the well fancied Ougham Ellen in the final. Well supported for the Oaks before she won in Castletown.

Barbican Pride 33/1 – Dungannon (Wallace Green-Intervention) April
Second qualifier from this litter, beaten in round two in Edenderry before her win here. Clocked off the all age runners but she has age on her side. Beat Dale Khaleesi in semi-final which was stood out. Very hard lady on her game.

Got to the second round of the cup in Dundalk over Christmas, lost to Dale Ashgard. Conditions were far from ideal!

Lagan Maria 50/1 – East Donegal (Jingles-Swing Rose) April
First time out winner. Was outsider in the final here behind Crafty Tassimo. First qualifier for Jingles, should improve leaps and bounds from this outing. Clocked a good bit off decent Cup dogs. Is an outsider of Oaks at the moment.

Beaten in the first round of the Corn Na Feile by Shimmerandshine.

Delightful Babe 33/1 into 16/1 – Knockgraffon (Adios Alonso-Bossa Nova Babe) Jan
Trained by last year’s Oaks winning trainer Mickey Murphy. Bred in the purple, winner second time of asking. Form of this winner has since been boosted after Moat Matilda won in North Kilkenny (Babe beat her in S/F). Both sire and dam are were winners on the big stage in Clonmel.

Babe ran with a lot of credit in Wexford over Christmas, reaching the semi-final before being withdrawn. A big mover in the market.

Killucan Winnie 33/1 – Balbriggan (Johnny Casanova-Your Symbolic) May
Winner second time of asking. Member of a terrific litter, three qualifers. Winnie held her clock in every round in Balbriggan, lined up her game perfect. Think it will need to improve a length or two to get involved in Clonmel. She’s only a May puppy so improvement should be natural.

Ran in the cup in Dundalk over Christmas but was totally offline from the start, no guide.

City Cruise 33/1 – Enniscorthy (Razor Ashmore-Latest Gamble) February
First trial stake winner of the year for the Matthews team. Looked to have improved no end from her first two outings, looked a stand out from round one in Enniscorthy. Runner up Droopys Swallow will be knocking on the door for a trial stake before the season is out. City will relish the extra few yards in Clonmel, kennel has to be respected.

Has had two runs since her trial stake win, beat in first round in both Abbeyfeale (by Isnt She Lovely) and Ballymena.

Pardon Me Boys 33/1 – Killimer Kilrush (Thomas The Tank-Down The Hollow) Jan
Winner on third attempt. Got stronger and stronger with every run in Killimer, outsider in final but impressive winner, Runner Up looked decent. Looks tailor made for Powerstown Park, will have to improve further however.

Shimmerandshine 25/1 – Rathkeale (Tynwald Smokey-Gadget Girl) March
Another qualifier from the all-conquering kennels of John Flynn. Winner on her 4th attempt at Rathkeale. Ran out a comfortable winner here in the end, looked to be getting stronger with every run. Appeared since in the Corn Na Feile, reaching the second round losing out to Melting Pot. Will appreciate the longer field in Clonmel.

Reached the second round in Abbeyfeale (beat by Melting Pot). Has since switched kennels, she is now under the care of the maestro Mickey Murphy from Castleisland. Can he preform the same miracles as he did the last time with Upup And Away?

Rushview Emma 20/1 – Rathcormac (Thomas The Tank-Emmas Goldrush) March
Debut winner here for Paul Willis. Looked the one from word go, did everything perfect. Breeding second to none (Derby winner out of an Oaks runner up). Could be one for the shortlist in Clonmel, any further improvement puts her bang in the shake-up.

Mad Moment 20/1 – Mitchelstown (Mafi Magic-Barrow Princess) April
Two runs and two wins for this lady. Winner of the local duffer in Miltown Malbay on her first public appearance, next time out was a trip to Mitchelstown (actually run with the Bandon meeting) where she came out on top in what looked a decent trial stake. She beat the highly thought of Skellig Sky in the final. Her dam is a full sister to the speedy Catunda Ashmore.

Kilcastle Five 16/1 – Lixnaw (Kyle King-Amys View) May
Ran up in Castleisland on her first appearance. Which was no disgrace, wasn’t beat much in the final. Her next appearance was in Lixnaw where she made no mistake about winning. Only a May puppy so can still mature. Kyle Kings first qualifier, grand dams offspring have ran Clonmel well in the past.

Killacolla Kiwi 33/1 – Johnstown (Kingsmill Dynamo-Killacolla Gold) April
Really looked to relish the rising ground here, trainer Dan Brassil onlyhad this lady under his care for a few weeks before she won so was extremely happy with her victory. On her second appearance in Galway And Oranmore she lost out to leading Oaks fancy Vim And Vigour in the 3rd round. Looks to be as tough as nails.

Skellig Jewel 16/1 – Ardpatrick (Adios Alonso-Skellig Babe) May
Bred in the purple. There was word about this lady before her first outing in Miltown Malbay. She lost out in the final to Isnt She Lovely, but these two stood out a mile from the rest. Ardpatrick was her next assignment and she was ultra-impressive. Both her parents took off in Clonmel, she is a leading fancy.

16/1 about this lady won’t last too much longer.

Fingal Sansa 25/1 – Old Kilcullen (Thomas The Tank-Fingal Floss) May
Was beaten in her first course on debut in Enniscorthy, but gained valuable experience. Her next meeting was a winning one in Old Kilcullen showing a nice turn of early pace. Got a bye course in the final as Bank Giro was withdrawn. Fingal was always favourite. Pat Savage generally gets a good run at the National meeting with his runners.

Offherrocker 40/1 – Glanworth (Kyle James-Brencal Express) Feb
Won a no-course duffer on debut in Ballinagar, reached 2nd round in Nenagh in her next outing. Got her golden ticket in Glanworth, in miserable weather conditions! Made an appearance in the Corn Na Feile but was put in her place by Melting Pot in the first round.

Tory Ellie 16/1 – Newcastlewest (Adios Alonso-Chubbys Excel) March
There is a lot to like about this lady, reached the semi-final on her debut in Carlow (beat by the winner Hey Ma). Went to Newcastlewest well fancied and didn’t let down her followers!

Beat subsequent trial stake winner Geraldine Said in the quarter final here with ease, didn’t look like she went back on her clock at any stage. Was added to the Oaks market at 20/1, that dried up extremely fast she is now a 16/1 poke. Will cost us a few euros if she is to prevail .

Kilty Sadie 25/1 – Cappoquin (March Is On-Lochbo Zola) May
Sole qualifier for 2011 Champion Stakes winner March Is On. Semi-finalist in her first outing at Kilflynn (beat by winner Not Really). Next time out she ran into one of the strongest trial stakes of the year in Ballyduff, going down to Banba Be Lucky (Abbeyfeale TS winner) in semi. Was favourite from the off in Cappoquin, won with ease!

Clodagh River 33/1 – Dungarvan (Kingsmill Dynamo-Intense Focus) March
3rd qualifier for Intense Focus. Second time out winner here, reached the third round in Killimer Kilrush on her maiden outing. All her gran dams offspring loved Clonmel (Mountain Guest). Any further improvement can see her going a few rounds.

Madonna 25/1 – Westport (Kyle James-Eastwell Blonde) April
Impressive winner here in Westport, held her clock throughout the meeting. Looked to show a nice burst of pace from slips, could make her a bit of a banana skin in the draw. Natural improvement is there with her age. Won on her second attempt.

Patterdale Vera 33/1 – Castletowngeoghegan (Johnny Casanova-Oh Banba) April
Beat in the final on debut in Ballinagar. One of three qualifiers for Oh Banba! Bred for speed more than stamina, is one to be avoided in the early rounds. Winner of a 16 bitch trial stake.

Moat Matilda 14/1 – North Kilkenny (Adios Alonso-Moat Missy) April
This lady first came to our attention when she ran in Galway & Oranmore reaching the semi-final (beat by winner Vim And Vigour), she looked the winner next time out in Knockgraffon but fell at the second last fence.

Collected next time in North Killkenny (her fifth outing) beating Banba Be Lucky in the first round. If the rumors are true, Matilda is now under new ownership and kennelled in Athenry.

Blastoff Betty 50/1 – Borrisoleigh (Kingsmill Dynamo-Mayor Berine) Jan
Had a few outings before striking the right note, clocked behind some decent All Age dogs at the meeting. Was outsider in the final so surprised a few people. Dams first litter.

Downton Minnie 25/1 – Co Kerry (Adios Alonso-Chubbys Excel) March
3 dogs through from this litter (1 dog, 2 bitches). Trainer always thought highly of this bitch, so didn’t come as a shock when she won here. Going on breeding we won’t see the best of Minnie until she meets the rising ground in Powerstown. Looks terrific each-way value at 25/1.

Satriani 40/1 – Cork (Razor Ashmore-Quality And Dash) April
6th qualifier from this terrific litter. Reached the 1/4 final in Kilflynn on debut, beat in the first in her next two outings (Carlow and Johnstown). No shortage of guts but she is going to have to step up dramatically to be involved in Clonmel.

Northland Jenny 40/1 – Dundalk (Adios Alonso-Central Model) April
Trained by Mickey Taggart. This lady collected her lodge car pass at the 4th attempt. She upset a few fancied runners on her way to victory In Dundalk. Her trade mark is her early pace, blowing from slips every time. I’m sure the firmer ground will suit her in Powerstown Park.

Tilly The Tank 33/1 – Mooncoin (Thomas The Tank-Needham Beauty) April
Tilly looked to be going well in Freshford before being withdrawn in the 3rd round. Next time out she wasn’t beat far by Tullamoy Dream (reserve winner Freshford). Her performance in Mooncoin was a huge improvement from her previous efforts. Trainer Dinny Lennon has 100% record with his runners in Clonmel.

Geraldine Said 40/1 – Roscommon (Newinn Wonder-Newinn Droopy) March
Third qualifier from this litter (Newinn Whisper and Tellmemorelies). Geraldine made her first appearance in Listowel losing out in a tight buckle in the 2nd round to eventual winner Glenlough Dixie. Her next two outings she was beat by decent opposition (Moat Matilda in Knockgraffon and Tory Eile in Newcastlewest). Had to work hard for her win in Roscommon. A second qualifier for Owen McKenna.

Corbraighe Holly 33/1 – Wexford (Adios Alonso-Jamaica Jane) May
Holly was a 5th qualifier in this litter. Trained by Decky Byrne. We saw a nice bit of support for this lady when she won in Wexford, It was her 3rd attempt. Her best effort before she won was a semi-final in Enniscorthy. Looked to get stroner with every run on her way to victory.

Banba Be Lucky 14/1 – Abbeyfeale (Johnny Casanova-Oh Banba) April
A third lady qualifier for dam Oh Banba. Came to the public’s attention when she ran up on her second outing in Ballyduff to Sullane Eirn. Next time out she met Moat Matilda in the first course in North Kilkenny, they say she was unlucky went a bit offline. Made no mistake in Abbeyfeale however. Put in an impressive display all the way through. Clocking near enough to the Corn Na Feile runners. One to take note of.

Clerihan Pockets 33/1 – Galbally (Pocketrocket Ben-Windgap View) April
First ever qualifier for sire Pocketrocket Ben. Pockets is bred for early speed which she showed in Galbally, she went favourite the second morning here and won as a favourite should. She didn’t set the world alight in her first few outings, but the fields mightn’t of suited her. Handled by joint owner Paddy Flannery

Crafty Luciano 25/1 – Millstreet (Kingsmill Dynamo-Crafty Bonito) March
Reached the 3rd round on her first three attempts of qualifying (Fermoy, Galway & Oranmore and Ardpatrick) best attempt was in Ardpatrick losing out one of the leading Oaks fancies Skellig Jewel. Got revenge on the Skellig kennels in the final in Milstreet beating Skellig May. Divillys only representative in the Oaks.

Dunsilly Dice 33/1 – East Donegal (Kyle James-Specific Date) March
Her only two outings were in the same field! Dam is a full sister of Oaks winner Smart Ali. In her first attempt she got beat in her second course, looked to have improved no end in her next appearance. Ran well from the start running out a worthy winner in the end. Beat the highly thought of Central Majestic in the final.

Donegal Tina 20/1 – Templetuohy (Adios Alonso-Aslee Annie) May
Ran extremely green in her first outing, next time out in Kilcullen she looked to come on a bit (beat by winner in round 2). In her third outing she went red hot favourite at the semi-final stage in Dungarvan but was surprisingly beat in the final. Next appearance was a winning one in Templetouhy. Ran well from halfway

Pumpkin Kia 20/1 – Sevenhouses (Judicial Affair-Pumkin Aviva) March
Winner on her 4th attempt for the Thompson family. Beat in round 1 in both Castleisland and Mitchelstown. In her 3rd appearance in Abbeyfeale she as beat by eventual winner Banba Be Lucky. I thought she was extremely impressive in Sevenhouses. In the final she opened up a big gap early in the course and held it right up to the turn.

Choctaw Squaw 40/1 – Ballymena (Johnny Casanova-Dungill) April
Best effort before winning in Ballymena was a semi-final in Dundalk (beat by winner). Was always well respected by her connections. Won a competitive trial stake here in Ballymena, should be fresh after as she only had to run 3 times! Had a bye in the final as Stacy My Girl was withdrawn.

Newinn Rose 16/1 – Kilcreevin-Ballymote (Razor Ashmore-Newinn Allin) June
A third qualifier for super dam Newinn Allin. Still a baby, only two outings (beat in round 2 in Newcastlewest). Put in her best performance in 2nd course in Ballymote, looked to take off. Three quarters sister to Thomas The Tank and Newinn Wonder. We know the breed like the hill in Clonmel.

Skellig Sky 25/1 – Tubbercurry (Skellig Way-Skellig Tivoli) May
A second qualifier for sire Skellig Way. First time out Sky was beat in the final in Mitchelstown (Mad Moment was the winner), next time in Roscommon she made her exit in the 1st course (beat by winner Geraldine Said). Timmy and Rose O’Driscoll are well represented in the oaks with three qualifiers.

Skellig Doll 25/1 – Clonakilty (Adios Alonso-Skellig Babe) May
On debut Doll was beat in round 2 by the eventual winner Laughing Lilo in Castleisland. She had two more outings after this (3rd round Rathcormac and 2nd round Newcastlewest). Then it was on to Clonakilty, she seemed to excel in the second half of her courses. Breeding needs no introduction!

Chevalto 33/1 – Macroom (Kyle King-Amys View) May
Appeared out five times before claiming the final ticket of the year in Macroom. Second qualifier from this litter. Best effort before this win was in Co Kerry where she reached the semi-final (beaten by runner up). Sure to appreciate the longer stretch in Powerstown Park. Conditions in Macroom were tough.

*Prices correct at time of publication.